Eruption Name : Redoubt 1902/1
|Start:||January 18, 1902 ||Observed|
|Stop:||June 21, 1902 ||Observed|
|Lava flow: ||
|Tephra plume: ||
|"Fire", "Glowing", or incandescence: ||
|Eruption Product: || andesite ||
|MaxVEI: ||3 ||
|Duration: ||Possibly nearly 7 months, intermittently ||
From the Daily Alaska Dispatch (1902): "Word has just been received that Redoubt, one of the volcanoes at Cook's Inlet had an eruption on January 18, and the country for 150 miles around was covered with ashes and lava. The news comes from Sunrise, but nothing definite has been ascertained as to whether any damage was done, for no boats have as yet been in the neighborhood of the volcano.
"On the date of the eruption the sky was darkened and at Sunrise, the snow was covered so thick with sand and ashes that it was impossible to do any sledding until a fresh fall of snow. At Hope, 12 miles distant [from Sunrise], the ashes were half an inch thick, and at Knik, on the opposite side of the Inlet was still deeper. These towns are about 150 miles northeast of the volcano [note: these towns are actually less than 100 miles from Redoubt], and the terrible force of the eruption can be imagined."
From The Alaskan (1902): Information has reached Juneau that sometime about New Year's day a terrific volcanic eruption occurred not far from Kenai on Cook's Inlet about 70 miles above English Bay. After the eruption, or during the time there was a terrific earthquake which burst the mountain asunder leaving a large gap, and the flames could be plainly seen from the village. The ground at the town of Kenai was covered with ashes and subsequently a tidal wave came in which did much damage. The water in the inlet rose to a great height and terror reigned throughout the village. The mountain was still smoking at the time the letter was written and occasionally large quantities of lava thrown there from. The letter bringing this information is from the Russian Priest at Kenai, who at one time resided here in Juneau.
"The Excelsior did not stop here going down and consequently the information which was sent here did not arrive until the return of the boat.
"The steamer at this time of year cannot make Kenai and the letter was brought out to the nearest office by a native. The Discovery will undoubtedly have fuller particulars. -- Record Miner."
A May 31, 1902 Associated Press article indicates the eruption continuing: "Mount Redoubt, in the Cook Inlet country, has been pouring out dense volumes of smoke for over a week and a few nights ago spouted out flames. The natives are greatly terrified and many have sought safety in flight to the farther end of Kensi peninsula. For several days volcanic ashes have been falling. The snow for many miles in every direction from Mount Redoubt is covered with ashes and Montague Island, in Prince William's sound, is also covered. Explosions and rumblings in the interior of the mountain are heard almost constantly and earth tremblings are of common occurrence."
The eruption continued to be listed in newspaper accounts. From June 3, 1902: "Passengers from Cook's Inlet, who arrived [to Seattle] by the steamer Chico confirm the previous rumors of another eruption of Redoubt volcano. The ship's course out of Inlet left the volcano directly to the westward, at which point is looked as if a continuous sheet of fire was rising probably miles high." A very similar, but less dramatic, article was published June 3, 1902, in the Galveston Daily News: "Passengers from Cook Inlet, who arrived [to Seattle] by the Chico, confirm previous rumors of another eruption of Redoubt Volcano, which is situated on the west side, about 40 miles northwest of Iliamna. Among them was A.C. Losey of Tacoma, who has been in the employ of the Translaska Company, and who saw the present eruption. Dense black clouds covered the entire region, spreading over Cook Inlet. At times the smoke directly over the volcano region were likened to a dark gray, but no flames were seen and no ashes reached the ship, but in the evening bright flashes flared up and lighten the whole sky in that region."
Juergen Kienle collected the following information from Brooks' scrapbook: "May 3, 1902, Redoubt - late June, the smoke and clouds were so dense that one couldn't see, June 21, 1902 - Kotzina locality - great clouds of black smoke. Lava in creek beds."
Till and others (1993) summarize the eruption as follows: "In 1902, explosive eruptions of Redoubt deposited tephra from Lake Clark to the Skwentna valley (Martin and Katz, 1912). Tephra fell on the settlement of Hope on the Kenai peninsula, January 22 and repeated explosions were heard there February 17 and 18 (The Alaskan, Sitka, March 29, 1902). An English tourist reported that 'at Kenai and Kusiloff [Kasilof] * * * [tephra] lay on the ground several inches thick in places' (Cane, 1903). This is probably an exaggeration, because there is no sign of 1902 tephra in terrestrial sites or in lake cores near Kasilof or Kenai (Thomas Ager, written commun., 1985). Tephra deposits from this eruption have been recognized elsewhere, however, and an analysis of tephra from this eruption was published by Pulpan and Kienle (1979)." Pulpan and Kienle (1979) state that the tephra is andesite.