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Okmok reported activity

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EVENT SPECIFIC INFORMATION

Event Name : Okmok 1931/3

Start:March 21, 1931 Observed
Stop:May 13, 1931 Observed

"Smoke": BibCard BibCard
Central eruption: BibCard BibCard
Eruption Type:Explosive
MaxVEI: 2 BibCard

Description: From Grey (2003): "Jaggar (1931) relates the journal entry of Mrs. Esther Wendhab, who tended seismographs in Dutch Harbor, on March 23, 1931: 'Captain Nelson of the Eunice reported a volcano smoking terribly with thick black fumes, where before he had only observed white steam, at Tulik on Umnak Island. He passed it March 21 and so unusual was its action he believes it is about to erupt. There was no record on the seismograph.'

"This eruption is reported to have continued at least until May 13 (Jaggar, 1932; Coats, 1950), when 'smoke' was still observed. Because activity is recorded as lasting nearly two months, this may have been a time of development of the pre-1943 Cone A lava field. Byers (1959) noted that the pre-1943 lavas to the northeast of Cone A were nearly identical in appearance to the 1945 lavas and would have been nearly indistinguishable had the 1945 eruption not been so well observed. Also, Freiday (1945) reported that parts of what he called the 'WAVE SPAR WAC' flow (the Cone A lava field, see figure 4.4 in original text) were melted out of the snow when he flew over the caldera [see also figure 5.2 in original text]. The date of his visit is not specified, but probably during the winte rof 1942-1943 and again in early summer 1943. Hantke (1951) calls for simultaneous eruptive activity at Okmok and Tulik in 1931, but the deeply glaciated state of Tulik precludes it having been active in historic time (Coats, 1950; Miller and others, 1998)."

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