ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY WEEKLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Friday, April 28, 2017, 12:30 PM AKDT (Friday, April 28, 2017, 20:30 UTC)
53°55'38" N 168°2'4" W,
Summit Elevation 492 ft (150 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW
This was a quiet week at Bogoslof. AVO has not detected any activity in seismic data, infrasound, lightning or satellite data throughout the week. The last major explosive event occurred on March 8, 2017 and occasional high-spatial resolution satellite images show no significant surficial changes due to eruptive activity since that time. Bogoslof remains at Aviation Color Code YELLOW and Alert Level ADVISORY.
Though the volcano is currently quiet, renewed activity could occur at any time and could include additional explosive events and/or effusion of a lava dome. Lower-level eruptive activity may also occur that is below our ability to detect in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data sources, and could generate hazardous phenomena in the immediate vicinity of the volcano.
We continue to use infrasound (pressure) sensors from Umnak Island and seismic data from Unalaska Island to monitor Bogoslof, which allow for timely detection and sometimes forecasting of significant activity. In addition, we use satellite imagery to track ash clouds and information from the Worldwide Lightning Location Network to identify volcanic lightning.
Bogoslof Island is the largest of a cluster of small, low-lying islands making up the emergent summit of a large submarine stratovolcano. The highest point above sea level prior to this eruption was about 100 m (300 ft); however, the volcano is frequently altered by both eruptions and wave erosion and has undergone dramatic changes in historical time. The two main islands currently above sea level are Fire Island and Bogoslof Island, both located about 98 km (61 mi) northwest of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, 123 km (76 mi) northeast of Nikolski, and 149 km (93 mi) northeast of Akutan. The volcano is situated slightly north (behind) the main Aleutian volcanic front. Bogoslof volcano is within the USFWS Aleutian Maritime Wildlife Refuge and is habitat for marine mammals and seabirds.
At least 8 historical eruptions have been documented at Bogoslof. The most recent prior to 2016 occurred from July 6-24, 1992, and produced episodic steam and ash emissions including an ash cloud up to 26,000 ft (8 km) asl on July 20, followed the next day by extrusion of a new 150 m (500 ft) by 275 m (900 ft) lava dome on the north end of the island. Previous eruptions of the volcano have lasted weeks to months, and have on occasion produced ash fall on Unalaska. Eruptions of the volcano are often characterized by multiple explosive, ash-producing events such as we have seen in 2016-17, as well as the growth of lava domes.
52°49'20" N 169°56'42" W,
Summit Elevation 5676 ft (1730 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Satellite observations over several days earlier this week indicated growth of a new lava dome in the summit crater prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Volcano Alert Level to WATCH on Monday, April 24. Seismicity has remained low all week and no other activity has been observed. Following several observations over the previous several weeks of elevated surface temperatures at the summit, a satellite image on April 15 showed the presence of a small (less than 10-meter-diameter) mound deep in the crater; the previous 75-meter-diameter lava dome was destroyed by an explosive eruption on March 21. A satellite image on April 23 showed the dome had grown to about 45 meters in diameter, partially filling the summit crater. Satellite images on April 25 showed no change and conditions have been cloudy the remainder of the week.
Cleveland volcano is monitored with a limited real-time seismic network, which inhibits AVO's ability to detect precursory unrest that may lead to an explosive eruption. Rapid detection of an ash-producing eruption may be possible using a combination of seismic, infrasound, lightning and satellite data.
Cleveland volcano forms the western portion of Chuginadak Island, a remote and uninhabited island in the east central Aleutians. The volcano is located about 75 km (45 mi) west of the community of Nikolski, and 1500 km (940 mi) southwest of Anchorage. The most recent significant period of eruption began in February, 2001 and produced 3 explosive events that generated ash clouds as high as 39,000 ft above sea level. The 2001 eruption also produced a lava flow and hot avalanche that reached the sea. Since then, Cleveland has been intermittently active producing small lava flows, often followed by explosions that generate small ash clouds generally below 20,000 ft above sea level. These explosions also launch debris onto the slopes of the cone producing hot pyroclastic avalanches and lahars that sometimes reach the coastline.
OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES
Information on all Alaska volcanoes is available at : http://www.avo.alaska.edu.
AVO scientists conduct daily checks of earthquake activity at all seismically-monitored volcanoes, examine web camera and satellite images for evidence of airborne ash and elevated surface temperatures, and consult other monitoring data as needed.
For definitions of Aviation Color Codes and Volcano Alert Levels, see: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/color_codes.php
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Chris Waythomas, Acting Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
email@example.com (907) 786-7497
Jeff Freymueller, Coordinating Scientist, UAFGI
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aThe Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.